Documents pour «Fleuve»

[FLEUVES] 4th Working Session – Cults and Traditions, from the 2nd Millennium until Today

06min02

Anatolian Rivers between East and West
Axes and Frontiers Geographical, economical and cultural aspects of the human-environment interactions between the Hebros and Tigris Rivers in ancient times The Cultural Aspects of Rivers 28th September-1st October 2017 Istanbul (French Institute of Anatolian Studies) Enez (Enez Excavations Directorate)
http://www.transfers.ens.fr/anatolian-rivers-between-east-and-west-axes-and-frontiers
Cults and Traditions, from the 2nd Millennium until Today: Discussion

[FLEUVES] Treaty, Ritual, Ordeal: Rivers in Hittite Anatolia

Ariane GERIN

24min22

Anatolian Rivers between East and West
Axes and Frontiers Geographical, economical and cultural aspects of the human-environment interactions between the Hebros and Tigris Rivers in ancient times The Cultural Aspects of Rivers 28th September-1st October 2017 Istanbul (French Institute of Anatolian Studies) Enez (Enez Excavations Directorate)
http://www.transfers.ens.fr/anatolian-rivers-between-east-and-west-axes-and-frontiers
Perceptions and Representations of Western Asiatic Rivers
İlgi Gerçek (Bilkent University, Ankara, ilgigercek@gmail.com) Treaty, Ritual, Ordeal: Rivers in Hittite Anatolia


Hittite archives and monuments dating to the Late Bronze Age (c. 1650-1200 BCE) provide us with ample evidence to study the economic and cultural significance of sources of water—from rivers and springs to man-made pools and water reservoirs. Recent studies have focused particularly on the effective water management strategies developed by the Hittite polity to cope with the unstable climatic conditions of central Anatolia, and the monuments built in or around water sources, which incorporated these sources into the Hittite state cult. The present paper will explore instead the cultural significance of rivers in Hittite Anatolia—their diverse and sometimes contradictory roles in the (1) cultic practices, (2) myths, and (3) geographical perceptions of its inhabitants, as summarized below. As prominent features of the topography of central Anatolia, rivers framed and defined the Hittite homeland in the Kızılırmak river basin. They were perceived as deities and at the same time served as the setting for rituals, festivals, and judicial ordeals. Rivers featured in numerous myths; they were associated with purification and creation, and provided links to the underworld.
(1) Rivers, along with mountains and springs, were venerated as deities in Hittite Anatolia. Like other deities in the Hittite pantheon, they received offerings and were invoked as witnesses to treaties and oaths. Instructions written for Hittite officials specify that the rites that were performed for rivers, springs, and mountains from ancient days were to be continued, which indicates that the veneration of natural sources of water had a long tradition in Hittite Anatolia. The role of rivers in the Hittite cult may best be illustrated by the following excerpt from a river ritual: “When they established heaven and earth, the gods divided (them) up among themselves. The upper-world gods took heaven for themselves, and the underworld deities took the earth (and) the underworld for themselves. Each took something for himself. But you, O river, took for yourself purification, life of the progeny, and procreation). (If) he says something to someone, (and if) it becomes terrible, he goes back to you, O river, and to the Fategoddesses and Mother-goddesses of the Riverbank, who created man.” This excerpt demonstrates that rivers were associated with purification and procreation, and were viewed as the abode of Fategoddesses
and Mother-goddeses, who had created mankind. Owing to their association with purification as well as their connection to the underworld, rivers and springs functioned as the setting for a number of rituals and festivals; riverbanks were frequently the place where the gods were invoked to participate in the ritual. In Hittite rituals, water was the cathartic material par excellence and as a ritual ingredient, pure water was collected from rivers and springs. Furthermore, clay acquired from riverbanks and clay from springs were regularly used in purification rituals. Clay from riverbanks and springs were also used to fashion figures and objects to be used in diverse rituals. Specific rivers, such as the Marassanta (Kızılırmak), Zuliya, or the Mala (Euphrates) occupied a special place in Hittite cult. We know, for instance, that an offering ritual for the Mala River was performed against plague. Textual evidence indicates that the “river ordeal,” a juridical practice commonly attested in the ancient Near East, existed in Hittite Anatolia as well, at least during the Old Kingdom. A reference in an Old Assyrian letter from Kültepe/Kanesh mentions “going to the river,” suggesting that this judicial practice was already attested in Anatolia at the beginning of the 2nd millennium BC. There are only a handful of references to the river ordeal in the Hittite archives, which render it difficult to discern the particulars of the practice or to infer whether the practice was widespread or confined to the upper echelons of Hittite society. In principle, the defendant was thrown into the river and the river determined whether the defendant was “pure” or “impure,” that is, “innocent” or “guilty.”

(2) Rivers feature in diverse Hittite mythological narratives. In one of the best-known examples, the Queen of Kanesh places her 30 sons in baskets filled with oil and releases them into the (Kızılırmak) river. The river carries them to Zalpa on the Black Sea coast, where they are rasied by the gods. In another, somewhat fragmentary mythological/ritual text, the Marassanta (Kızılırmak) is invoked to aid in the search of the Storm-god of Nerik, when this god is angered and leaves his abode in Nerik. The text describes how the Strom-god had once changed the course of the Marassanta River. The Marassanta River, described as “close to the soul of the Storm God of Nerik” is then asked by the Storm God of the Sky to swear an oath never to alter its course.

(3) As prominent features of the landscape of Anatolia, rivers (along with bodies of water, mountains, or mountain ranges) were perceived as natural frontiers that framed and defined the Hittite heartland and the territories subordinate to the Hittite polity. However, the stipulations in Hittite treaties against the crossing of rivers imply that these were insufficient as actual physical barriers, but functioned more as organizing features. For instance, according to the Sunassura treaty (between the Hittite king and the king of Kizzuwatna), the Samri River was Kizzuwatna’s frontier, and neither king was allowed to cross the river to the other side. Moreover, access to rivers and springs were strictly regulated in treaties.

[FLEUVES] Performing Imperial Cult: The Archaeological Survey of Fasıllar and its contribution to Hittite Cult Practices

Yiğit ERBIL

23min48

Anatolian Rivers between East and West
Axes and Frontiers Geographical, economical and cultural aspects of the human-environment interactions between the Hebros and Tigris Rivers in ancient times The Cultural Aspects of Rivers 28th September-1st October 2017 Istanbul (French Institute of Anatolian Studies) Enez (Enez Excavations Directorate)
http://www.transfers.ens.fr/anatolian-rivers-between-east-and-west-axes-and-frontiers
Perceptions and Representations of Western Asiatic Rivers
Yigit Erbil (Hacettepe University, yigiterbil@gmail.com)
Performing Imperial Cult: The Archaeological Survey of Fasıllar and its contribution to Hittite Cult Practices

From 2012, five archaeological surveys have been completed around the so-called Fasıllar Monument and its surrounding area. Since its discovery, this monument has intrigued the scientific community, as it lies on its own with no Hittite archaeological settlement nearby. The general aims of the Fasıllar Regional Archaeological Project are threefold: to determine the general historical and geographical contexts of the Fasıllar Monument; to reconsider the function of the seemingly unfinished Hittite monument at Fasıllar and its exact location with
respect to Tarhuntašša; and to understand cult places in the Hittite Period.
According to Ancient Near East beliefs, all nature and natural events are considered individual entities that act with consciousness. In practices of cult, these reflections of nature are personalized through images of great gods. Early religions of Anatolia, similar to other parts of the world, were based on interaction among humans and the nature. The roots of Hittite religion can be traced back to such early concepts. Cult practices emerging from many changes and additions that occurred in a long period of time were based on a system of reward and punishment. Both secular and religious messages co-existed focusing on the satisfaction of
gods and providing social messages. As such, Hittite cult practices reveal their interconnection between religion and state and this dynamic reveals itself in ceremonies involving the cycle of the seasons and communication with the gods of the underworld and the cults of the dead as well as the ancestors. In this presentation, the historical geography of ancient Anatolia will be evaluated in respect of Fasıllar survey archaeological data, in order to understand more about religiously charged geographies in the natural landscape in the last quarter of the 2nd Millennium BC.

[FLEUVES] 3rd Working Session – Perceptions and Representations of Western Asiatic Rivers: Discussion

12min26

Anatolian Rivers between East and West
Axes and Frontiers
Geographical, economical and cultural aspects of the human-environment interactions between the Hebros and Tigris Rivers in ancient times

The Cultural Aspects of Rivers
28th September-1st October 2017
Istanbul (French Institute of Anatolian Studies)
Enez (Enez Excavations Directorate)
http://www.transfers.ens.fr/anatolian-rivers-between-east-and-west-axes-and-frontiers
Perceptions and Representations of Western Asiatic Rivers: Discussion

[FLEUVES] The Antiochean Orontes: A City and its River, Realities and Legends

Catherine SALIOU

29min04

Anatolian Rivers between East and West
Axes and Frontiers Geographical, economical and cultural aspects of the human-environment interactions between the Hebros and Tigris Rivers in ancient times The Cultural Aspects of Rivers 28th September-1st October 2017 Istanbul (French Institute of Anatolian Studies) Enez (Enez Excavations Directorate)
http://www.transfers.ens.fr/anatolian-rivers-between-east-and-west-axes-and-frontiers
Perceptions and Representations of Western Asiatic Rivers
Catherine Saliou (University of Paris VIII / École Pratique des Hautes Études, Paris, catherine.saliou@ephe.sorbonne.fr) The Antiochean Orontes: a city and its river, facts and myths




The presence of the Orontes at the feet of the Antiochean Tyche stresses the strength of the relationship between the city of Antioch and the river Orontes. The proceedings of a colloquium entitled Le fleuve rebelle. Géographie historique du Moyen Oronte d’Ebla à l’époque médiévale, recently published, are a good starting point for rethinking this relation in Classical and Late Antiquity. The various contributions in this volume remind the importance of the seminal work of Jacques Weulersse and offer some new insights about the role played by the Orontes in the history. In the course of this paper, we will first study the role of the Orontes in the urban landscape and urban life of Antioch, before turning to the imagined Orontes.
The course of the river changed through the times, and as a consequence our knowledge of the ancient landscape is blurred. Ancient Antioch extended along the left bank of the Orontes, between the river and the mountain. In the course of time, the city grew outside its walls and on the other side of the river, and in Late Antiquity the name of Palaia (“The Old city”) applied to the part (or to a part) of the agglomeration located on the left bank. The Antiochean Orontes, from the Amuk Lake to the sea, is a Mediterranean river, which may be navigable, and was indeed a shipping lane at least during the Roman and Late Roman period. This implies the existence of a fluvial harbour or several fluvial harbours. But the river was not only a shipping lane. Waterpower moved watermills. At least in Late Antiquity, such watermills were a source of income for the municipality. The flow of the river was also derived for various purposes. During the reign of the emperor Vespasian, at least two channels have been dug. The “fullers’ channel" was been dug by the people of Antioch. Another channel is known through a Latin inscription: referring to it as Dipotamiae fluminis ductus. This inscription commemorates the digging of this channel by soldiers of the Roman army. Two questions remain unsolved: the meaning of “Dipotamia” and the relationship between the channel and Antioch. A Greek inscription recently found3 helps to answer these questions. The mere fact that the same text has been posted, on two different supports, in Latin (language of the emperor) and in Greek (language of the city), is meaningful. The Orontes was familiar to the Antiocheans especially since, until the sixth century, the bank itself was apparently not fortified. To be sure, in the fourth century, there was no city-wall along the Orontes: Libanius and John Chrysostom speak about gardens extended until the river. People who lived on the slopes on the mountains, relatively far from the river, enjoyed nevertheless, a view on it. Moreover, the island and the suburbs were, in Late Antiquity at least, vibrant sectors of the agglomeration. The island itself is probably an artificial island, created by the digging of a channel. There are traces of occupation from the Hellenistic period onwards, but the Late Antique period is far the best known. In the Late Antiquity, it was named as “the New (city)” (Kaine). The imperial palace occupied the fourth of its surface. On the island were also the hippodrome and public baths. The New City was a vibrant centre of power and urban life. It was walled, which should mean visually isolated from the river. However, the upper gallery of the palace offered a direct view on the Orontes and the other bank of the river. There was also a way passing along the Orontes, between the palace and the river, and giving access to the Campus (parade ground, and meeting place of one of the Christian factions of the city ca 370). Beyond the island, Libanius describes the suburbs, on the right bank of the Orontes, as vivid and pleasant. We know also that some prestigious churches were located on this right bank. All this means that the agglomeration of Antioch as a whole was less bordered, than crossed by the river. This remark points out the importance of the bridges in the urban landscape and urban life. Things changed, however, in the sixth century. After Valens (dead in 378), emperors had ceased to come and stay in Antioch, and it seems that the New city had lost bit by bit its importance. After ravaging earthquakes (526 and 528) and the Persian invasion (540), Justinian ordered to rebuild the city on a reduced perimeter. The course of the Orontes itself was channelled, in order to border the new citywall. One of the consequences of these works was to cut (or at least stretch) the tie between the Antiocheans and the Orontes. In the fourth century, the Orontes was clearly for Libanius a structural component of the urban landscape. At the end of the sixth century, the river is mentioned only once in the Ecclesiastical History of Evagrius Scholasticus, in the narrative of a riot which took place in 512. In the Vita of Symeon Stylites the Younger, written in the beginning of the seventh century, the river is never mentioned in the passages referring to Antioch. The Antiochean mental map seems to have evolved, and the Orontes might have lost its significance for the inhabitants of Antioch. The Orontes; however, was not the only watercourse in Antioch. A torrent called “Parmenios” by the chronograph Malalas and “Onopnictes” by Procopius of Caesarea came down from the mountain and flowed in the Orontes. This torrent could be very dangerous, and cause floods. For this reason,
several talismans were supposed to protect the city. Such stories of magic were not told about the Orontes. But, the Orontes itself is also a mythological figure, and is associated with several myths or mythological beings. To sum up, the Orontes plays a role in the very ancient myth of the struggle between Zeus and Typhon (“Typhon” was said to be the ancient name of the river); the river is also involved in traditions relating to mythical or pseudo-historical giants, and might have been assimilated in some way to the Arcadian river Alpheus. We will examine whether, and how these traditions are tied with the city itself.

[FLEUVES] Rivers as Political and Cultural Frontiers between the Provinces of Roman Asia Minor

Frédéric Saly-Giocanti

28min46

Anatolian Rivers between East and West
Axes and Frontiers
Geographical, economical and cultural aspects of the human-environment interactions between the Hebros and Tigris Rivers in ancient times

The Cultural Aspects of Rivers
28th September-1st October 2017
Istanbul (French Institute of Anatolian Studies)
Enez (Enez Excavations Directorate)
http://www.transfers.ens.fr/anatolian-rivers-between-east-and-west-axes-and-frontiers
Perceptions and Representations of Western Asiatic Rivers
Benet Salway (University College London, r.salway@ucl.ac.uk)
Rivers as Political and Cultural Frontiers between the Provinces of Roman Asia Minor

We are familiar with major rivers as forming borders at the outer frontiers of Roman domination, from the Rhine in the west to the Euphrates in the east. At the same time, the idea that rivers form corridors of communication and river valleys natural cultural communities is well established. Many city territories, even of those of port cities had a fresh water course running at their heart. Given that Roman provincial organisation, at least in already urbanised areas, such as Asia Minor, was defined by lists of generally pre-existing city territories (the formulae provinciarum), the boundaries of the provinces coincide with those of the boundaries of their constituent civic communities. Moreover, as Ronald Syme observed, the Roman roads,
which tended to run along the river valleys, formed the spine of provincial organisation.
Typically, therefore, provincial boundaries in Asia Minor are found running predominantly along the watersheds of mountain ranges separating river valleys, as, for example, the ranges describing the Pisidian extension of the province of Galatia (around the colonies of Apollonia and Antioch). In late antiquity, however, the Syndecdemos of Hierocles, allows us to perceive the use of the Maeander River as the frontier between the province of Caria to its south, and the rump of the province of Asia to the north, out of which it had been carved.
Recent epigraphical finds have shone new light on the determination of some Roman provincial boundaries in Asia Minor. Field survey undertaken by F. Battistoni, and P. Rothenhöfer (Epigraphica Anatolica, 46 [2013], 101-165 = AE 2013, 1443) in the territories of the modern towns of Orhaneli (Hadrianoi) and of Keles, revealed that the prosopographie and the dating formulae of the dedications at the rural sanctuary at Assartepe, near Baraklı, and that of Tazlaktepe, near Belenören, suggest thsat the region known as the chora of the Dagoutènoi (ἡ Δαγουτηνῶν χώρα : IHadrianoi (IK, 33), 50), occupying a zone in the bend of the Kocaçay (Rhyndacus) on the south-western slopes of Uludağ (Mt Olympus), belonged to the territory of
Prusa ad Olympum (Bursa) in Bithynia rather than to that of Hadrianoi in the province Asia.
Thus, at least in the 2nd and 3rd centuries AD, the frontier between Asia and Bithynia was not the crest of Mt Olympus but the course of the river Rhyndacus.
Conversely a recently published inscription from Nysa in northern side of the Maeander valley (E. N. Akdoğa-Arca in Vir Doctus Anatolicus [2016], 67) shows the city of Nysa to have erected a statue base to the senator Q. Clodius Fabius Agrippianus Celsinus, praeses of Phrygia-Caria, possibly as the first holder of this post (c. AD 255/260). This suggests that when the province of Phrygia-Caria was first carved out of the great proconsular province of Asia the frontier in this region ran along the watershed between the Maeander and Cayster valleys and was only later moved south to the line of the Maeander river itself, thus returning Nysa to the province of Asia. Here the later decision favours a pragmatic frontier over one that respected
indigenous cultural units, a tendency of Roma provincial organisation that the geographer Strabo had already commented upon in the early first century.

[FLEUVES) Rivers as Pre-Modern Cartographic Challenge: The Case of Asia Minor

Richard TALBERT

23min20

Anatolian Rivers between East and West
Axes and Frontiers
Geographical, economical and cultural aspects of the human-environment interactions between the Hebros and Tigris Rivers in ancient times

The Cultural Aspects of Rivers
28th September-1st October 2017
Istanbul (French Institute of Anatolian Studies)
Enez (Enez Excavations Directorate)
http://www.transfers.ens.fr/anatolian-rivers-between-east-and-west-axes-and-frontiers
Perceptions and Representations of Western Asiatic Rivers
Richard Talbert (University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, talbert@email.unc.edu)
Rivers as Pre-Modern Cartographic Challenge: The Case of Asia Minor

The paper illustrates and discusses the longstanding universal difficulties of mapping rivers, with special reference to Asia Minor. Here, as late as the early 20th century, mapping was still conducted under conditions comparable to those found during classical antiquity. In consequence, with major initiative by the Ottoman authorities barely begun, the hydrography of Richard Kiepert’s Karte von Kleinasien (1901-1907) was far from definitive. The sole surviving representation of the region transmitted to us from antiquity, the Peutinger Map, treats rivers cavalierly, although perhaps nothing better is to be expected from this Map’s curious design. Even in Ptolemy’s Geography concern for river-courses is all but lacking, a limitation justified by his confinement of the work’s scope to geographia and point-data, without accommodating the detail associated with chorographia and with large-scale surveys such as those undertaken by Roman agrimensores. Strabo, too, describes his native region of Asia Minor strictly at the level of geographia, from a perspective far more terrestrial than fluvial.
Wherever the unfinished Artemidorus Map may represent, it is evidently at the least chorographic work, which – contra its editors Gallazzi, Kramer, Settis (2008) – affords us a glimpse of how rivers might be rendered by ancient cartographers.

[FLEUVES] 2nd Session Between Asia and Asia Minor: Cilician and Near Eastern Rivers: Discussion

20min13

Anatolian Rivers between East and West
Axes and Frontiers
Geographical, economical and cultural aspects of the human-environment interactions between the Hebros and Tigris Rivers in ancient times

The Cultural Aspects of Rivers
28th September-1st October 2017
Istanbul (French Institute of Anatolian Studies)
Enez (Enez Excavations Directorate)
http://www.transfers.ens.fr/anatolian-rivers-between-east-and-west-axes-and-frontiers
Between Asia and Asia Minor: Cilician and Near Eastern Rivers: Discussion

[FLEUVES] Between Forest and Coast: Why should we talk about the flotation of logs in Protohistoric Cilicia?

Eric JEAN

22min37

Anatolian Rivers between East and West
Axes and Frontiers
Geographical, economical and cultural aspects of the human-environment interactions between the Hebros and Tigris Rivers in ancient times

The Cultural Aspects of Rivers
28th September-1st October 2017
Istanbul (French Institute of Anatolian Studies)
Enez (Enez Excavations Directorate)
http://www.transfers.ens.fr/anatolian-rivers-between-east-and-west-axes-and-frontiers
Between Asia and Asia Minor: Cilician and Near Eastern Rivers
Éric JEAN (Çorum University, ericjean1@yahoo.com)
Between Forest and Coast: Why should we talk about the flotation of logs in Protohistoric Cilicia?

Hittite texts provide the names of many watercourses, in connection with religious practices or serving as space delimitations, like the border between two kingdoms or the limits of a temple’s area. On the other hand, they remain very silent about the use of rivers for socioeconomic activities, as transport. Protohistoric Cilicia confirms that picture but, with its geographical situation between mountains and sea, it may also serve as a study case for the potential use of its rivers as means of wood transport, by flotation.
From both archaeological evidence and inferences drawn from the interpretation of textual evidence, metallurgy and shipbuilding must have been important activities in Cilicia, from the Chalcolithic period (Mersin-Yumuktepe) and, at least, the Hittite period onwards, respectively. Both activities required big amounts of wood, which was supplied by the surrounding forests from the Taurus and the Amanus ranges. Since land transport from the mountains was particularly difficult until the construction of modern roads, it can be assumed that the conveying of timber was made by rivers.
As there is no direct evidence for the flotation of logs in Cilicia during the Hittite period, which is concerned here, indirect information will be induced from, first, the study of wood, its importance, use and origin, and, secondly, the analysis of the Cilician rivers and their potential use during the 2nd Millennium BC.
Wood represented a good of first necessity, not only for the daily heating and the architecture, but for the metallurgical industry and the construction of ships as well.
Metallurgical activities were assumed from, at least, the excavations in Kinet Höyük, Tarsus-Gözlü Kule and Kilise Tepe. In the 13th c. BC, a letter sent by the Hittite king Hattushili III to an Assyrian king mentions a royal storehouse for iron in Kizzuwatna (Plane Cilicia); from the same letter it may be inferred that there was iron smelting in the region. The opening on the sea and the function of sea ports played by the sites of Kinet Höyük, Mersin-Soli Höyük, perhaps Mersin-Yumuktepe, and by the non localised city of Ura (Silifke?), suggest the existence of a shipbuilding. More than likely, shipbuilding was a necessity, especially since the Hittites needed an outlet to the Mediterranean (see Ura) and a navy, though they were probably not
sailors themselves. Furthermore, it is assumed that the famous copper production in Cyprus would have required more fuel than provided by the island, so that the Cypriots had to import wood, logically from the forest resources surrounding Cilicia. In the same way as for watercourses, information provided on mountains by Hittite texts does not concern in the first place their economic potential. However, the importance of the Taurus, especially for its mines, and the Amanus for its forests is well documented in Assyrian sources, the cedar being the favourite tree and wood.
A presentation of the main Cilician rivers and of the changes of their course will show that their navigability was very low, because of flows very strong (before the construction of the modern dams). Nevertheless, the situation of sites like Kilise Tepe and Sirkeli Höyük suggest there were river ports. The relative welfare of Sirkeli came most probably from its function as a port in a key position on both sides of the Ceyhan River flowing from the Yukarıova to the Çukurova through the Misis Dağ. By giving later examples in history (Antiquity, Middle Age, Modern Times…), it will be demonstrated that the conveying of wood as raw material through flotation of logs was the easiest way to supply ports, cities and other commercial centres.
Often considered in opposition, like a salvage world versus a civilized one, the mountains and the plain with its cities were actually complementary. In that interdependence, between forest and coast, the rivers, despite their difficult use, were a link and an economic actor.

[FLEUVES] 1st Working Session – On the Edge of Europe: from Hebros to Meriç Discussion

28min01

Anatolian Rivers between East and West
Axes and Frontiers
Geographical, economical and cultural aspects of the human-environment interactions between the Hebros and Tigris Rivers in ancient times

The Cultural Aspects of Rivers
28th September-1st October 2017
Istanbul (French Institute of Anatolian Studies)
Enez (Enez Excavations Directorate)
http://www.transfers.ens.fr/anatolian-rivers-between-east-and-west-axes-and-frontiers
On the Edge of Europe: from Hebros to Meriç: Discussion

[FLEUVES] River Transportation in Cilicia and the Amuq in the Second Millennium BC

Sevilay Zeynep YILDIZ

17min34

Anatolian Rivers between East and West
Axes and Frontiers
Geographical, economical and cultural aspects of the human-environment interactions between the Hebros and Tigris Rivers in ancient times

The Cultural Aspects of Rivers
28th September-1st October 2017
Istanbul (French Institute of Anatolian Studies)
Enez (Enez Excavations Directorate)
http://www.transfers.ens.fr/anatolian-rivers-between-east-and-west-axes-and-frontiers
Between Asia and Asia Minor: Cilician and Near Eastern Rivers
Sevilay Zeynep YILDIZ (Muğla Sıtkı Koçman Üniversitesi, sevilayzeynep.h@gmail.com)
River Transportation in Cilicia and the Amuq in the Second Millennium BC

Rivers are the crucial components of maritime harbor settlements. Through these harbors, goods coming from inland reach the sea; the river mouths offer bays protecting the boats which sail up the river, from the seacoast and back. In Cilicia and Amuq regions, the coastline is dominated by mountains which obstruct overland transportation. It seems that only the rivers provided short and suitable paths for goods transportation. Unfortunately, unlike in Mesopotamia, Egypt and Europe, there is no evidence for Bronze Age navigation on the rivers of these regions. Nevertheless, geomorphological studies in the Cilician and Amuq deltas showed that estuarine areas presented more appropriate conditions for river transportation and harbors during the second millennium BC than in later times. In this paper, I will present the characteristics of the possible river transportation and its crafts that might have been used in the second millennium BC in Cilicia and the Amuq valley.

[FLEUVES] Hadrianopolis, the City at the Intersection of the Rivers

Şahin YILDIRIM

17min40

Anatolian Rivers between East and West
Axes and Frontiers
Geographical, economical and cultural aspects of the human-environment interactions between the Hebros and Tigris Rivers in ancient times

The Cultural Aspects of Rivers
28th September-1st October 2017
Istanbul (French Institute of Anatolian Studies)
Enez (Enez Excavations Directorate)
http://www.transfers.ens.fr/anatolian-rivers-between-east-and-west-axes-and-frontiers
On the Edge of Europe: from Hebros to Meriç
Şahin YILDRIM (Bartın University, sahinyildirim@live.com)
Hadrianopolis, the City at the Intersection of the Rivers

According to the ancient resources, the Odrysians were one of the Thracian tribes who
came into the region they occupied in historical times through the migrations of the first millenium B.C. The first settlement they founded here was called Uscumada, Ordysia or Oreistias. This first settlement was located on the fertile lands where the rivers of Hebros, Arpessos and Tonzos intersect. This city, at the crossroad of the significant passages reaching out from Europe to Anatolia, fell under the influence of the Hellenic culture. During the Roman Empire, it developed a potent city identity; its significant monumental structures were depicted on the coins. The city grew in importance with the visit of Hadrian and it was renamed “Hadrianapolis” in honor of the Roman emperor.
The Hebros River had a very important role in Hadrianopolis’ life. The river is the second longest river in Balkan Peninsula, after the Danube River and it is the longest river in Thrace. Also, it is the widest river in the Northern Aegean. The Hebros River had been open to navigation until the 18th century: this is why, by following its course, it was easy to reach out the Black Sea through the Balkans. Herodotus (VII, 58-59) states that a large part of the Hebros River was suitable for navigation and transportation of goods. Especially between Hadrianopolis and Ainos, the Hebros was an accessible waterline, because of the merging three rivers near Hadrianopolis. Ainos was situated near the mouth of the city, on the coast of the
Aegean. This location of the city enabled it to maintain its strategic importance throughout the Medieval Age. Its location was very suitable for transportation and delivery of goods to the inner regions. In fact, river transportation is the cheapest and the most efficient way of carrying goods in the ancient times (Casson 2002: 144). The river god is depicted with a ship on the coins of Hadrianoupolis, dating back to the emperors Antoninus Pius, Septimus Severus and his wife Julia Domna, as well as Commodus.
Throughout the history, the Hebros River provided the necessary path for export and import of goods through the Balkans and Thrace. However, within time, its mouth on the Aegean was blocked by the alluvial deposits and its harbors became unusable.